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The people residing in the beautiful valley of Kashmir mostly speak in Kashmiri. With this article, explore the history & literature of the language.

Kashmiri Language

Kashmiri Language is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. According to the 201 census, India has about 5,554,496 Kashmiri speakers. Even about 105,000 Kashmiri speakers in Pakistan are mostly the immigrants from the Kashmir Valley. Kashmiri Language basically belongs to the geographical linguistic sub-grouping called the Dardic part of the Indo-European Language Family. It is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is also the official language of Jammu and Kashmir.

History
Kashmiri Language has an interesting linguistic history. Like the other North Indian languages, it branched off from the Indo-Aryan Sanskrit, but had another ancestor before that- the Shina languages of the Indo-Iranian family. But when mighty Sanskrit came, Shina was thickly overlaid. From about the 14th century, medieval Persian too started creeping into Kashmiri. With such foreign influences, the Kashmiri language boasts of peculiarities like certain vowel and consonant sounds which no other Indian language has. Kishtawari is the most popular dialect of Kashmiri.

Literature
It is said that Kashmiri is the only Dardic Language with a literature. The literary history of Kashmiri, beginning from 12th century AD, is equally interesting. Poetry is the key word, with writers experimenting with different forms of it in all ages. Anyway, contrary to what happened in other literatures (or rather what has been recorded of them), the first great Kashmiri writer was a woman. She was everybody’s favourite- Lal Dad or Granny Lal. Her sensitivity and mysticism in the verses "Vaakh" appealed to the Hindus, Muslims, scholars and peasants alike. Other works of this formative phase (till about 1555 AD), though not as brilliant as Lal Dad’s, are Shrukhs of Sheikh Noor-ud-din, Mahanay Prakash of Shiti Kantha, Banasura Katha of Bhatavatar and Sukhadukhacharitam of Ganaka Prashasta.

Love-poetry flourished in the next few centuries. Along with the mystical and esoteric verses perfected by Habib Ullah Navshohri (1555-1617) and Rupa Bhawani (1625-1720), a new kind of love poetry developed. This was the beautiful lol-lyric, sung mostly by women. Habba Khatoon (1551-1606) and Aarnimal (late 18th century) were the ruling ladies of this genre of mellifluous verses.

Persian literature became quite an influence on Kashmiri in the late 18th century. And Kashmiri littérateurs like Mahmud Gani and Waliullah Motoo (both mid-19th century) took to translations from Persian and writing masnavis (couplets expressing one emotion) and ghazals (romantic poetry set to music) in a big way. The legendary love tales of Laila and Majnu, Shirin and Farhad, Sohrab and Rustum, and many more were brought in which, a hundred years later, also became excellent fodder for hit films.

Lila-poetry was another innovation where the poet sang like a lover-devotee of the Creator’s exuberance. Paramanand (1791-1885) excelled in this, while others like Prakash Ram, Maqbul Shah, Lachman Raina, Rasul Mir and Shams Faqir dealt with other forms of poetry. The Kashmiris are a singing people; songs and ghazals have always been a part of their literary culture. The cult of the maikhana (liquor house) and sharaab (wine) in ghazals, popular in Urdu poetry too, was created in the 1890s and 1900s. The first few decades of the 20th century saw a prolific writing of mystical and secular poetry, ghazals, masnavis and geets (songs).

Prose appeared pretty late in Kashmiri, only in the beginning of this century. But there’s really not much good Kashmiri prose, except for a few translations. It was also the time of great socio-political movements all over the country, which had their impact on modern poets like Ghulam Ahmed Mahjoor (1885-1952), Zinda Kaul and Abdul Ahad Azad. Dramas are a recent entry in Kashmiri, with only a few noteworthy like Somnath Zutshi’s Mo’dur Mas and Viji Vaav, and some from the Machaama series of Pushkar Bhan.

Writing System and Grammar
Till recent present Kashmiri Language has been a spoken language. Though few ancient documents of this language have also been found in Sharada script and in Perso-Arabic script. Currently, the language is written in Perso-Arabic script with slight modifications. Though attempts to make the language available on Devanagari script, especially on the internet is being constantly done by the Hindus. The Grammar of the Kashmiri Language is very much unlike other Indo-Aryan languages and follows Subject Verb Object word order like that of English. There are four cases in Kashmiri language viz. nominative, genitive, and two oblique cases.